ELOY Ludivine

Chargée de recherche, CNRS, Géographie, Agronomie

PUBLICATIONS


Pour une consultatoin ou des recherches approfondies, rendez-vous directement sur la collection du laboratoire sur le portail HAL-SHS, ou retrouvez ci-après les titres et résumés de chaque publication.

 

 

 

 

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Articles de recherche dans des revues avec comité de lecture et contribution à des ouvrages de recherche - ACL

  • [halshs-03196184] Water Appropriation on the Agricultural Frontier in Western Bahia and Its Contribution to Streamflow Reduction: Revisiting the Debate in the Brazilian Cerrado
    Over the last three decades, almost half of the Brazilian tropical savanna (Cerrado biome) has been converted into cropland and planted pastures. This study aims to understand the implications of the expansion of the agricultural frontier for water resources in western Bahia state. We use an interdisciplinary approach that combines quantitative and qualitative data (spatial and hydrological analysis, interviews) to tie together land use changes in the Corrente basin, the streamflow and precipitation time series in the Pratudão River sub-basin (part of the Corrente basin), and the perceptions of soybean farmers and smallholder communities about the transformations of the hydrological cycle over the last few years. We observed an almost 10-fold increase in agricultural surface area in the Corrente River basin over the last three decades (1986–2018), going on from 57,090 ha to 565,084 ha, while center-pivot irrigated areas increased from 240 ha to 43,631 ha. Over this period, the streamflow has reduced by 38% in the Pratudão River. Our hydrological analyses, based on the Mann-Kendall test, of seven fluviometric stations and 14 pluviometry stations showed a statistically significant streamflow trend in the Pratudão River sub-basin for both minimum and mean streamflow series (p ≤0.05). Surface runoff coefficient, which relates streamflow and precipitation annual data coefficient, decreased from around 0.4 in the late 1990s to less than 0.2 in 2015. In addition, most precipitation time series analysis (number of annual rainy days) showed no statistically significant trend (p > 0.05). Our results indicate that agricultural changes rather than climate change may be the main driver of downward streamflow trends in the Pratudão River sub-basin that is part of Corrente River basin
  • [hal-02426890] Comment lutter contre la déforestation en Amazonie?
    Depuis plusieurs mois, l'Amazonie est au centre de l'attention planétaire, entre incendies incontrôlables et déclarations polémiques du président brésilien.
  • [hal-02626994] Sistemas agrícolas e alimentares de famílias rurais: análise da multilocalização familiar na região Oeste de Santa Catarina
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  • [hal-02626967] Apresentação do Dossiê: Antropologia das Áreas Protegidas e da Sustentabilidade
    [...]
  • [hal-02713020] Os sistemas agrícolas tradicionais nos interstícios da soja no Brasil: processos e limites da conservação da agrobiodiversidade
    A expansão do agronegócio em todas as regiões do Brasil desafia o futuro dos sistemas agrícolas tradicionais. Este artigo pretende identificar os processos pelos quais agricultores tradicionais mantêm a diversidade agrícola na fronteira da soja no Brasil. Os dados foram obtidos a partir do levantamento e mapeamento das práticas agrícolas e da agrobiodiversidade junto a 113 agricultores indígenas, quilombolas e camponeses em seus respectivos territórios do Sul, Norte e Nordeste do país. A diversidade agrícola nos interstícios da soja (entre 66 e 188 espécies e variedades cultivadas) resulta da produção contínua de conhecimentos nos espaços oriundos da agricultura de corte e queima. Os conhecimentos agrícolas tradicionais configuram uma fronteira heterogênea, onde os interstícios cultivados por comunidades revelam-se como ilhas de agrobiodiversidade em um mar de monoculturas. Longe de serem opostos à modernidade ou à economia de mercado, os conhecimentos agrícolas tradicionais consistem em processos de inovação que residem na combinação engenhosa entre práticas e variedades "antigas" e "modernas". Assim, o conceito de conservação dinâmica permite ir além da ideia comum da substituição de variedades locais por cultivares comerciais, ou da "erosão" dos conhecimentos tradicionais frente ao avanço do agronegócio. Por outro lado, mesmo em territórios tradicionais relativamente estabilizados, a conservação dinâmica da agrobiodiversidade é ameaçada pelos impactos ambientais da expansão da soja. Por mais que as formas tradicionais de praticar a agricultura sejam ainda operantes nestes interstícios, um processo extra-territorial de desqualificação dos conhecimentos agrícolas locais ameaça os sistemas agrícolas tradicionais, por causa da aceleração dos ritmos e escalas de mudanças ambientais. Assim, medidas de reconhecimento, proteção e monitoramento dos territórios tradicionais são condições básicas para que a(o)s agricultora(e)s sigam conservando a agrobiodiversidade de forma dinâmica.
  • [hal-02016463] Políticas ambientais seletivas e expansão da fronteira agrícola no Cerrado: impactos sobre as comunidades locais numa Unidade de Conservação no oeste da Bahia
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  • [hal-02398037] Alternatives durables pour le biome Cerrado : occupation et usages des territoires par les producteurs agroextractivistes
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  • [hal-02269416] Firing up: Policy, politics and polemics under new and old burning regimes
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  • [hal-01907235] Fire management in the Brazilian savanna: First steps and the way forward
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  • [hal-01907234] From fire suppression to fire management: Advances and resistances to changes in fire policy in the savannas of Brazil and Venezuela
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  • [hal-01907233] New perspectives in fire management in South American savannas: The importance of intercultural governance
    Wildfires continue to cause damage to property, livelihoods and environments around the world. Acknowledging that dealing with wildfires has to go beyond fire-fighting, governments in countries with fire-prone ecosystems have begun to recognize the multiple perspectives of landscape burning and the need to engage with local communities and their practices. In this perspective, we outline the experiences of Brazil and Venezuela, two countries where fire management has been highly contested, but where there have been recent advances in fire management approaches. Success of these new initiatives have been measured by the reduction in wildfire extent through prescribed burning, and the opening of a dialogue on fire management between government agencies and local communities. Yet, it is clear that further developments in community participation need to take place in order to avoid the appropriation of local knowledge systems by institutions, and to better reflect more equitable fire governance.
  • [halshs-01926005] Seasonal fire management by traditional cattle ranchers prevents the spread of wildfire in the Brazilian Cerrado
    The use of fire by cattle ranchers is a major source of conflict between conservationists and local communities in tropical savannas. We evaluate the role of traditional pastoral management in wildfire prevention in two protected areas within the Brazilian savanna. Finegrain field data from transect walks and interviews were combined with geospatial data at landscape scale to compare fire regimes in community-managed areas with those in government-managed areas. Local pastoral management creates seasonal mosaic patterns of burnings performed for productive activities and for deliberate landscape management, i.e. to protect fire-sensitive vegetation and avoid wildfires. Whereas government managed areas were affected by large biennial late dry season wildfires, community-managed areas with a regular fire regime suffered less damage. These systems are under threat and poorly understood by researchers and environmental managers. In order to improve fire management in tropical savannas, greater understanding of pastoral management practices and their spatiotemporal dimensions is required.
  • [halshs-02870872] Fire management in Veredas (Palm swamps): new perspectives on traditional farming systems in Jalapão (Brazil)
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  • [hal-02016565] Redes e observatórios da agrobiodiversidade, como e para quem? Uma abordagem exploratória na região de Cruzeiro do Sul, Acre
    A diversidade de plantas cultivadas, selecionadas e conservadas pelos agricultores tradicionais, é de interesse tanto local quanto nacional, além de constituir um patrimônio biológico e cultural. No caso da Amazônia, apesar de atualmente dispormos de uma suma de dados sobre a agrobiodiversidade, a diversidade das opções metodológicas mobilizadas torna difícil uma visão sintética de suas dinâmicas. Para entendê-las, torna-se imprescindível assegurar um monitoramento, em longo prazo, de localidades sentinelas ou observatórios, e construir indicadores a serem compartilhados entre populações locais, pesquisadores e formuladores de políticas públicas. Como exemplo, propomos uma abordagem exploratória da agrobiodiversidade levantada junto a 52 agricultores de duas comunidades da região de Cruzeiro do Sul (Acre), a partir de uma abordagem qualitativa sobre as formas locais de denominação das plantas e quantitativa, fundamentada sobre a medida da riqueza (número de espécies ou variedades presentes). A amplitude da riqueza é de 338 plantas, principalmente variedades locais, levantadas com uma alta frequência de espécies ou de variedades apenas cultivadas por um ou dois agricultores, sua estruturação é marcada pela presença de um modelo aninhado, sendo evidenciado o núcleo de plantas de maior coesão.
  • [hal-01191894] On the margins of soy farms : traditional populations and selective environmental policies in the Brazilian Cerrado
    In the Cerrado, the expansion of soybean cultivation since the 1990s has coincided with the strengthening of environmental regulations. We analyze how the two main environmental policies – Protected Areas and the Forest Code – have played out at the ground level in western Bahia state. These policies in Cerrado have not been designed to curb the expansion of this agricultural frontier. These norms have, on the contrary, accommodated this expansion because the way environmental managers selectively choose environmental problems and publicize them through specific information systems depreciates traditional fire-dependent production systems. These ‘politics of selection’ are likely to increase competition for resources in the margins of soybean agriculture, which is where traditional populations have now become confined.
  • [halshs-02870876] A Ascensão do Pagamento por Serviços Ambientais no Brasil: Negociando uma Governança Policêntrica.
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  • [halshs-02870886] Régularisation foncière et mobilités rurales-urbaines en Amazonie brésilienne. Quels effets sur les dynamiques résidentielles et démographiques des populations forestières?
    Á partir de l’exemple de la vallée du Trombetas (Pará), nous analysons l’évolution des pratiques migratoires des populations forestières d’Amazonie et leurs interactions avec certains phénomènes démographiques : décohabitation, primo-fécondité et primo-nuptialité. Aujourd’hui, la plupart des familles réussissent à fréquenter la ville de façon régulière grâce à des systèmes de mobilités articulant dispersion résidentielle et complémentarité des fonctions au sein du ménage. Chez les jeunes filles, la mobilité rurale-urbaine est fréquemment motivée par l’accès aux services scolaires et s’accompagne d’une décohabitation précoce. Parallèlement, on observe un rajeunissement de la fécondité.
  • [hal-01191898] New Perspectives on Mobility, Urbanisation and Resource Management in Riverine Amazônia
    In recent years, the Amazon has experienced simultaneous processes of urbanisation and creation of protected areas. Debates over the changing role of traditional peoples in the management of such areas have largely taken place in the absence of reliable information on these popula-tions' connections to urban areas. We review the literature on Amazônia to explore how rural–urban mobility redefines patterns of resource use. The focus is primarily on riverine areas of the Brazilian Amazon. Connection to urban areas does not necessarily imply deep changes in production techniques, but induces new norms, rules and values around access to and management of resources. Rural–urban mobility challenges the capacity of local groups to maintain collective resource management, but on the other hand involves the reassertion of traditional territories and identities through social and economic networks. Mobility and migration have long been integral to the livelihood patterns and political strategies of rural and indigenous populations in Latin America (Adams et al., 2009; Alexiades, 2009). Recently, however, the magnitude of social dispersion and changes in settlement patterns associated with rapid urbanisation have renewed research interest in the implications of these processes for resource use and management in general (Wright and Muller-Landau, 2006), and within the Amazon basin in particular (McSweeney and Jokisch, 2007; Padoch et al., 2008). Urbanisation in Amazônia has been better studied on agricultural frontiers (Browder and Godfrey, 1997; Barbieri et al., 2009) than along the floodplains and the Amazon's main tributaries. However, these areas are increasingly important for resource conservation in the region (Parry et al., 2010a). Indeed, as
  • [hal-01191901] Amerindian Agriculture in an Urbanising Amazonia (Rio Negro, Brazil)
    This article explores the transformations undergone by indigenous agricultural systems in periurban areas of the Rio Negro (Amazonas, Brazil). Rather than losing their characteristics, these systems have basically been transposed from a forest context to periurban areas, maintaining multi-plot cultivation, dynamic management of agrobiodiversity and traditional knowledge. But this agriculture is confronted by the values of modernity embedded in urban agriculture. The recognition of the ecological and cultural relevance of indigenous practices depends on new kinds of market integration and partnerships. Since the 1980s, the population of the three main towns in the Upper and Mid Rio Negro, in northwestern Brazilian Amazonia, has steadily increased and is now on the point of exceeding the rural population. In this region, located 400 km upstream from Manaus, population density is low (under one inhabitant per square kilometre). The phenomenon concerns all of Brazilian Amazonia. In 2000, 68 percent of the Amazonian population lived in urban areas; today this figure has increased to nearly 75 percent and continues to rise rapidly. At present, nineteen cities have populations of over 100,000 inhabitants each. Manaus and Belém , each with about 2 million people, have the largest concentrations of the urban population. However, towns have been emerging and growing along the agricultural frontier since the 1970s (Browder and Godfrey, 1997), and, more recently, urban growth has also become significant in remote areas such as the Rio Negro, in Amazonas State (Eloy, Le Tourneau and Théry , 2005). Whether along rivers or along roads, population growth takes place mainly in urban centres. Population movements between towns and forests are often temporary or circular , depending upon school calendars and those of productive activities (agriculture,
  • [halshs-02872823] O Gado que Circulava: Desafios da Gestão Participativa e Impactos da Proibição do Uso do Fogo aos Criadores de Gado de Solta da Reserva de Desenvolvimento Sustentável Veredas do Acari
    In the Cerrado (Savanna), extensive cattle raising on rangelands have been present since the eighteenth century, but this practice has not been fully incorporated in the debate on collaborative management in protected areas. Due to the increasing privatization of rural areas and the creation of protected areas, local communities are being “surrounded” and often end up being excluded from their traditional territories. What are the barriers for the recognition of this practice as a possibility to conservation objectives? The purpose of this article is to understand the local difficulties in implementing collaborative management in the Sustainable Development Reserve (SDR) Veredas do Acari (Minas Gerais) and to assess the possible coexistence of this traditional practice with the conservation actions. Twenty five interviews were made with the herders who use the SDR. Participative mapping enabled to portray the dynamic and intermittent nature of the occupation of SDR by the cattle. The cattle of each farmer follow a route known to them and that doesn’t overlap with the others’. This knowledge shows some kind of indirect management of the territorythrough the cattle. The rules governing this type of management are informal and based on cooperation among herders. Interviews with different locals show the difficulties of cooperation between official resource managers and the herders to build co-management agreements. Because the environmental agency does not recognize these practices as legitimate, it attempts to compensate for the restrictions on use of fire, directlylinked to cattle raising, by promoting other activities such as extractivism and handcrafting. Even recognizing the impact caused by cattle, the farmers blame the eucalyptus plantations established in the 1970s for the most significant environmental problems. Cattle raising in the SDR Veredas do Acari has been the cause of conflict between the farmers and official resource managers, precisely because there are different perceptions about the very nature and origins of environmental problems. However, territorial conflicts in the region are also linked to older questions such the use of fences and the privatization of common areas.
  • [halshs-02872460] Implementando Pagamentos por Serviços Ambientais no Brasil: caminhos para uma reflexão críticas
    O texto analisa a evolução das políticas e programas de Pagamentos por Serviços Ambientais (PSA) no Brasil e discute as implicações dos modelos preponderantes para a conciliação entre conservação e desenvolvimento. Os PSA emergiram de iniciativas de diversificação produtiva e de transição agroecológica. Entretanto, sua institucionalização em politicas públicas favorece a convergência para medidas de restrição de uso da terra e de restauração florestal. Essa mudança está ligada a: 1) a ênfase dada pelo governo às medidas de controle do desmatamento, 2) as expectativas de financiamentos por REDD e 3) as perspectivas de inclusão dos PSA no Código Florestal. Ela é reforçada pelo uso preponderante de satélites para o monitoramento dos projetos, o que produz um sistema binário de representação da paisagem. Isso justifica modelos convencionais de intensificação da agricultura e de proteção da natureza que não levam em conta atividades agropecuárias provedoras de serviços ambientais. Assim, o ingresso dos agricultores nos programas de PSA depende, mais do que nunca, do seu acesso às redes e cientifico-técnicas que estruturam os arranjos institucionais locais.
  • [halshs-02872472] O que há de novo com a ecoagricultura?
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  • [hal-01191902] Can Rural–Urban Household Mobility Indicate Differences in Resource Management within Amazonian Communities?
    This article aims to understand the relationships between rural–urban mobility and economic differentiation in Amazonian communities, through a multi-scaled methodological framework. We focus on Amazonian quilombola communities (Par a State, Brazil), and we use a rural–urban circulation index to untangle the concept of mobility system. We show that individual mobility patterns are embedded in a process of multilocalisation, articulating rural and urban areas at a collective level. Economic diversification relies on complementarity of circulation within households. In this sense, the ability of some families to maintain resource rights in different places is one of the premises for economic differentiation. Since the 1980s, many traditional communities have been granted land rights in the Amazon basin. In several Amazonian countries, innovative legal statuses have given political visibility and land tenure security to indigenous and traditional peoples, based on the recognition of a special relationship between these communities and nature, usually embedded in spatial status and social boundedness (Alexiades, 2009; Newing, 2009). Brazil has gone further since 2006 with Decree n • 5.758, which considers
  • [hal-01088473] La construction de territoires multisitués en Amazonie
    Nous explorons les logiques des territoires multisitués de communautés quilombolas (descendants d’esclaves marrons) d’Amazonie. Leurs systèmes de mobilités articulent des espaces discontinus, à la fois ruraux et urbains, grâce à la dispersion des résidences familiales et à la complémentarité entre profils de mobilité. Un ensemble de règles collectives d’appartenance et d’accès aux ressources assure la continuité entre ces espaces et donne sens à la notion de territoire multisitué. Nous discutons ensuite les défis associés à la reconfiguration récente de ces territoires, compte tenu de l’évolution des systèmes de production et des injonctions liées à la gestion environnementale.
  • [halshs-02872760] O papel da cidade da agricultura familiar do semiárido: o exemplo do submédio São Francisco
    O desenvolvimento da agricultura irrigada no semiárido foi idealizado como uma das alternativas para evitar o êxodo rural em direção às grandes metrópoles brasileiras. No entanto, pouco se sabe sobre seus impactos na agricultura familiar. Foram entrevistados vinte e cinco chefes de família na região de Curaçá (BA) para analisar a história agrária, os sistemas de mobilidade e as redes de obtenção e as redes de plantas cultivadas. O sistema agrário era sustentado pela complementaridade funcional entre os espaços da beira do rio e da caatinga. A construção da barragem do Sobradinho contribuiu para desarticular esse sistema, dando uma nova importância às cidades regionais nos modos de vida locais. Hoje, a multilocalidade rural-urbana é uma forma de manter sistemas produtivos familiares no semiárido. Porém, a agricultura familiar tende a se apoiar num leque restrito de variedades cultivadas, obtidas principalmente nas lojas das cidades regionais, o que pode comprometer a autonomia alimentar na região.
  • [hal-00477754] Urbanisation and transformation of indigenous resource management: the case of Upper Rio Negro (Brazil)
    Indigenous resource management is transforming in the face of urbanisation in Amazonia. We wonder how land tenure arrangements feature a new kind of resource management in peri-urban areas. Data were obtained from ethnographic and agro-economic interviews combined with a geographic information system analysis of population and land tenure distribution nearby São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Northwest Amazonia. The territories of each indigenous village are composed by many kinds of land use rights, ranging from exclusive ownership to common property. In the peri-urban area, private property has become the main land use right. But most of indigenous families resort to a multi-sited land use in rural-urban areas. The multi-sited pattern is associated with diversification of land use rights in the same households and extended families. These innovations reveal the adaptation of indigenous resource management.
  • [hal-00771301] Payments for ecosystem services in Amazonia. The challenge of land use heterogeneity in agricultural frontiers near Cruzeiro do Sul (Acre, Brazil)
    Amazonia became a target area for Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) initiatives in deforestation. We analysed the implementation of a PES scheme in Acre (Brazil) by taking into account land use heterogeneity in an agricultural frontier. Justified by the modernisation of deforestation control policies, the programme promotes agricultural intensification through fire-free practices. In this way, the PES tends to focus on long-established settlements, where farmers are wealthier and the landscape is dominated by pasture. Agricultural intensification may be adapted to foster reforestation. In order to curb deforestation a specific policy is needed for targeting remote areas where initial stages of deforestation usually take place. By promoting only land sparing, PES programmes in Amazonia may lose sight of their socio-economic and environmental objectives due to limited spatial targeting.
  • [hal-01201378] Seed exchange networks for agrobiodiversity conservation. A review
    The circulation of seed among farmers is central to agrobiodiversity conservation and dynamics. Agrobiodiversity, the diversity of agricultural systems from genes to varieties and crop species, from farming methods to landscape composition, is part of humanity’s cultural heritage. Whereas agrobiodiversity conservation has received much attention from researchers and policy makers over the last decades, the methods available to study the role of seed exchange networks in preserving crop biodiversity have only recently begun to be considered. In this overview, we present key concepts, methods, and challenges to better understand seed exchange networks so as to improve the chances that traditional crop varieties (landraces) will be preserved and used sustainably around the world. The available literature suggests that there is insufficient knowledge about the social, cultural, and methodological dimensions of environmental change, including how seed exchange networks will cope with changes in climates, socio-economic factors, and family structures that have supported seed exchange systems to date. Methods available to study the role of seed exchange networks in the preservation and adaptation of crop specific and genetic diversity range from meta-analysis to modelling, from participatory approaches to the development of bio-indicators, from genetic to biogeographical studies, from anthropological and ethnographic research to the use of network theory. We advocate a diversity of approaches, so as to foster the creation of robust and policy-relevant knowledge. Open challenges in the study of the role of seed exchange networks in biodiversity conservation include the development of methods to (i) enhance farmers’ participation to decision-making in agro-ecosystems, (ii) integrate ex situ and in situ approaches, (iii) achieve interdisciplinary research collaboration between social and natural scientists, and (iv) use network analysis as a conceptual framework to bridge boundaries among researchers, farmers and policy makers, as well as other stakeholders.
  • [halshs-02872479] D’une production localisée à une Indication Géographique. La farinha de Cruzeiro do Sul (Amazonie brésilienne)
    La valorisation de productions localisées via les indications géographiques est relativement récente au Brésil. La « farine de manioc » de Cruzeiro do Sul (Acre) fait partie des produits susceptibles de recevoir ce signe de qualité. La question de l'intérêt d'une indication géographique (IG) pour assurer la pérennité tant écologique que culturelle de cette production amazonienne est ici posée. Celle-ci peut être considérée comme un produit hybride, résultant d'un savoir-faire nordestin et de variétés d'Amazonie occidentale. Du fait de ses qualités organoleptiques, elle jouit d'une réputation nationale ; toutefois, son développement commercial est à l'origine d'une extension des surfaces cultivées prises sur la forêt. Les politiques publiques n'intègrent pas encore les dimensions environnementales et culturelles de cette production et centrent leurs actions sur les normes sanitaires, la standardisation du produit et la visibilité de son emballage. Cette étude met en évidence les difficultés de l'application du système d'indications géographiques dans un contexte social et écologique hétérogène.
  • [halshs-00590912] La circulation de l'agrobiodiversité sur les fronts pionniers d'Amazonie (région de Cruzeiro do Sul, état de l'Acre, Brésil)
    En Amazonie, le développement des mobilités urbainrural soulève la question des liens entre territorialités et gestion des ressources. Avec l'exemple de la région de Cruzeiro do Sul (Acre, Brésil), nous montrons que les échanges de plantes cultivées entre les agriculteurs constituent un vecteur de l'appropriation de l'espace, de l'entretien de la mémoire familiale et de la continuité géographique entre les lieux de vie. Les réseaux d'échanges reflètent des dynamiques de fixation collective et de mobilité individuelle sur le front pionnier. Ils témoignent de la gestion collective de ressources biologiques dans des espaces marqués par l'appropriation privée des moyens de production.
  • [hal-00533371] Dynamiques et enjeux des agricultures familiales au Brésil
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  • [hal-00533353] Questions foncières et politiques de réforme agraire au Brésil
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  • [hal-03062039] Diversidade alimentar e urbanização
    A cidade de São Gabriel da Cachoeira, localizada no noroeste da Amazônia brasileira, é majoritariamente habitada por famílias indígenas. Neste artigo, investigamos em que medida as territorialidades indígenas propiciam a manutenção de uma diversidade alimentar neste contexto. Para tanto, combinamos o estudo de sistemas de produção periurbanos, a observação participante de práticas alimentares e a análise das principais linhas de abastecimento alimentar na cidade. A incorporação de alimentos de origem exógena nas refeições indígenas deve-se principalmente às condições de acesso aos recursos naturais e de mobilização da mão de obra. Para contornar essas dificuldades, os grupos domésticos articulam os recursos urbanos e florestais por meio da produção multilocal e da migração circular cidade-floresta. Além disso, na escala da família extensa, as redes de troca entre a cidade e a floresta favorecem a manutenção da qualidade dos produtos e da agrobiodiversidade.
  • [hal-00533363] Urbanização e transformação dos sistemas indígenas de manejo de recursos naturais : o caso do alto rio Negro (Brasil)
    O objetivo do artigo é analisar as transformações observadas nos sistemas indígenas de manejo dos recursos naturais no Alto Rio Negro, Noroeste Amazônico, devido à urbanização intensa e acelerada de algumas localidades e aos processos migratórios ocorridos nas últimas décadas. Nossos dados foram obtidos por meio de pesquisas etnográficas e agroeconômicas, associadas ao Sistema de Informação Geográficas para análise de população, direitos fundiários e paisagens na área periurbana de São Gabriel da Cachoeira, a principal cidade da região. As comunidades indígenas utilizam um território tradicional, onde se articulam diversos tipos de direitos fundiários sobre os recursos naturais, desde o uso individual exclusivo até a propriedade comum. Na região periurbana, a propriedade privada da terra se tornou dominante. No entanto, por causa da escassez crescente dos recursos naturais ao redor da cidade, a famílias migrantes negociam seus direitos fundiários no âmbito de uma rede social extensa, criando assim uma estratégia multilocal. Esta pode ser entendida como manifestação da adaptabilidade dos sistemas tradicionais de manejo dos recursos naturais.
  • [hal-00477756] L'urbanisation provoque-t-elle la déforestation en Amazonie ? Innovations territoriales et agricoles dans le nord-ouest Amazonien (Brésil).
    Les processus d'urbanisation en oeuvre dans les forêts tropicales sont souvent incompatibles avec le maintien d'agroécosytèmes forestiers diversifiés. Dans les régions situées à l'écart des fronts pionniers, le développement des petites villes remet en question la durabilité des espaces protégés et des agricultures amérindiennes. Ce travail analyse les recompositions territoriales et agricoles liées à l'urbanisation autour de São Gabriel da Cachoeira (Amazonie brésilienne). La ville a connu une croissance rapide durant les vingt dernières années, essentiellement en raison de l'installation de familles provenant des Terres Indigènes du haut Rio Negro. La périphérie de la ville est maintenant dominée par la propriété privée. Malgré cela, la région périurbaine demeure largement couverte de formations forestières denses. Au lieu de passer à des systèmes de culture permanents, la plupart des familles amérindiennes maintiennent l'agriculture sur abattis-brûlis, utilisant la ville comme source de diversification économique. Leurs mobilités circulaires articulent différents lieux de résidence et de production, afin de pallier la rareté croissante des ressources naturelles. Ces innovations territoriales offrent des alternatives pour la durabilité des agricultures d'abattis-brûlis en contexte d'urbanisation.
  • [hal-00533233] L'indication géographique, un instrument de pérennisation des productions localisées en Amazonie ? Le cas de la farine de manioc de Cruzeiro do Sul (Acre, Brésil)
    La création de la Réserve Extractiviste du Haut Juruá en 1990 a suscité un programme de recherches associant sciences humaines et sciences biologiques avec, comme question de fond, la prise en charge par les populations locales de la gestion d’aires. Cette recherche a constitué le point d’ancrage d’un autre programme sur la gestion de la diversité agricole. Il s’agissait en particulier de comprendre en l’application d’instruments de valorisation de productions localisées pouvait interférer avec les normes, perceptions et connaissances locales sur ces mêmes produits et quel était leur impact sur la biodiversité.
  • [halshs-00343047] Géographie et anthropologie : deux regards complémentaires pour l'étude des territoires des populations traditionnelles d'Amazonie brésilienne
    Anthropologie et géographie se retrouvent facilement autour des notions d'espace et de territoire. Pourtant, si des spécialistes de chacune des deux disciplines ont pu utiliser des notions développées par l'autre, les études en commun sont peu nombreuses. Nous montrons dans cet article comment les populations traditionnelles d'Amazonie brésilienne sont à la fois un objet particulièrement intéressant pour ce double regard, et comment des études pluridisciplinaires sont indispensables pour restituer tous les enjeux qui leur sont attachés. Ce présupposé constitue le point de départ du groupe de recherche USART et la base d'un engagement qui va au delà de la simple observation scientifique.
  • [hal-03060821] Diversité alimentaire et urbanisation
    São Gabriel da Cachoeira, ville du nord-ouest de l’Amazonie brésilienne, est majoritairement habitée par des familles amérindiennes. Nous nous demandons dans quelle mesure les territorialités amérindiennes permettent le maintien d’une certaine diversité alimentaire. Nous couplons pour cela l’étude des systèmes de production, l’observation participative des pratiques alimentaires et l’analyse des principales filières d’approvisionnement. L’incorporation de produits alimentaires d’origine exogène dans les repas des amérindiens est due principalement aux conditions d’accès aux ressources naturelles et de mobilisation de la main d’œuvre. Pour contourner ces contraintes, les groupes domestiques articulent les ressources urbaines et forestières grâce à des mobilités circulaires. De plus, à l’échelle de la famille élargie, les réseaux d’échange entre ville et forêt favorisent le maintien de la qualité des produits et l’agrobiodiversité.
  • [hal-00477750] Resiliência dos sistemas indígenas de agricultura itinerante em contexto de urbanização no noroeste da Amazônia brasileira
    Este artigo identifica as bases agroeconômicas e as praticas territoriais que explicam a resiliência dos sistemas indígenas de agricultura itinerante em função das transformações ocorridas com a rápida urbanização da Amazônia, sobretudo com as mudanças das regras locais de apropriação dos recursos naturais. Utilizando o exemplo da zona periurbana de uma pequena cidade da Amazônia ocidental (Brasil), analisamos a diferenciação espaço-temporal dos três principais sistemas de cultivo após corte e queima, e comparamos seus resultados agroeconômicos. Os dados foram obtidos a partir da análise espacial das dinâmicas de paisagem e de um conjunto de entrevistas entrevistas com famílias de agricultores selecionadas através de uma dupla amostragem. Os resultados mostraram que os três modos de cultivo são complementares no espaço produtivo famíliar e durante o processo de produção. A expansão da surperficie das agroflorestas se deve a uma especialização para o mercado urbano, mas remete sobretudo a uma estratégia de capitalização fundiária. As unidades de produção multilocais se dividem entre os espaços urbanos e florestais, o que permite aliviar a concorrência para o acesso aos recursos naturais. As mobilidades circulares em rede propiciam manter a complementariedade entre os sistemas de cultivo, e assim contribuem para a sustentabilidade do agroecosistema perirubano. A resiliência dos sistemas indígenas de manejo dos recursos florestais em contexto de urbanização sugere novas alternativas para o desenvolvimento agrícola e para a conservação da biodiversidade na Amazônia.

 

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