ELOY Ludivine

Chargée de recherche, CNRS, Géographie, Agronomie

PUBLICATIONS


Pour une consultatoin ou des recherches approfondies, rendez-vous directement sur la collection du laboratoire sur le portail HAL-SHS, ou retrouvez ci-après les titres et résumés de chaque publication.

 

 

 

 

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Articles de recherche dans des revues avec comité de lecture et contribution à des ouvrages de recherche - ACL

  • [hal-02626944] Fire regime in the Brazilian Savanna: Recent changes, policy and management
    In 2019 Brazil recorded the highest wildland fire occurrence South America has seenfor the last 15 years. Added to the Amazon, the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado) faces changes in fire regimes. Climatic changes and the recent weakening of environmental law enforcement are factors, but historic and large-scale trends and drivers of fire regimes must be analyzed. We discuss ecological and policy drivers of recent changes in fire regimes in the Cerrado, in order to highlight management strategies. The Cerrado has evolved with natural fires and anthro-pogenic fires are also common for millennia. In the past 50 years, wildfires tend to be concentrated in the late dry season and to occur every two / three years, causing serious damage in fire-sensitive vegetation. Apart from climatic variations, the drivers of wildfires are deforestation and fire suppression policies. Nearly half of the original vegetation of the Cerrado biome has disappeared largely due to agribusiness expansion. Fire is associated with deforestation in two ways: vegetation conversion to monocultures, and lack of fire management in the remaining native vegetation. Indeed, the attempts to exclude fires from this fire-prone ecosystem disrupted traditional fire management. Fire suppression policies lead to increased wildfire risks due to fuel load and the multiplication of sources of ignition (conflicts, roads). The recent advances in Integrated Fire Management in protected areas in the Cerrado are evident. However, the recent budget cuts by the Brazilian government in environmental management and research undermine the chances of decreasing occurrences of wildfires in this biodiversity hotspot.
  • [hal-02626994] Sistemas agrícolas e alimentares de famílias rurais: análise da multilocalização familiar na região Oeste de Santa Catarina
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  • [hal-02626967] Apresentação do Dossiê: Antropologia das Áreas Protegidas e da Sustentabilidade
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  • [hal-02713020] Os sistemas agrícolas tradicionais nos interstícios da soja no Brasil: processos e limites da conservação da agrobiodiversidade
    A expansão do agronegócio em todas as regiões do Brasil desafia o futuro dos sistemas agrícolas tradicionais. Este artigo pretende identificar os processos pelos quais agricultores tradicionais mantêm a diversidade agrícola na fronteira da soja no Brasil. Os dados foram obtidos a partir do levantamento e mapeamento das práticas agrícolas e da agrobiodiversidade junto a 113 agricultores indígenas, quilombolas e camponeses em seus respectivos territórios do Sul, Norte e Nordeste do país. A diversidade agrícola nos interstícios da soja (entre 66 e 188 espécies e variedades cultivadas) resulta da produção contínua de conhecimentos nos espaços oriundos da agricultura de corte e queima. Os conhecimentos agrícolas tradicionais configuram uma fronteira heterogênea, onde os interstícios cultivados por comunidades revelam-se como ilhas de agrobiodiversidade em um mar de monoculturas. Longe de serem opostos à modernidade ou à economia de mercado, os conhecimentos agrícolas tradicionais consistem em processos de inovação que residem na combinação engenhosa entre práticas e variedades "antigas" e "modernas". Assim, o conceito de conservação dinâmica permite ir além da ideia comum da substituição de variedades locais por cultivares comerciais, ou da "erosão" dos conhecimentos tradicionais frente ao avanço do agronegócio. Por outro lado, mesmo em territórios tradicionais relativamente estabilizados, a conservação dinâmica da agrobiodiversidade é ameaçada pelos impactos ambientais da expansão da soja. Por mais que as formas tradicionais de praticar a agricultura sejam ainda operantes nestes interstícios, um processo extra-territorial de desqualificação dos conhecimentos agrícolas locais ameaça os sistemas agrícolas tradicionais, por causa da aceleração dos ritmos e escalas de mudanças ambientais. Assim, medidas de reconhecimento, proteção e monitoramento dos territórios tradicionais são condições básicas para que a(o)s agricultora(e)s sigam conservando a agrobiodiversidade de forma dinâmica.
  • [hal-02016463] Políticas ambientais seletivas e expansão da fronteira agrícola no Cerrado: impactos sobre as comunidades locais numa Unidade de Conservação no oeste da Bahia
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  • [hal-02398037] Alternatives durables pour le biome Cerrado : occupation et usages des territoires par les producteurs agroextractivistes
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  • [halshs-01926005] Seasonal fire management by traditional cattle ranchers prevents the spread of wildfire in the Brazilian Cerrado
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  • [hal-02269416] Firing up: Policy, politics and polemics under new and old burning regimes
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  • [hal-01907235] Fire management in the Brazilian savanna: First steps and the way forward
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  • [hal-01907233] New perspectives in fire management in South American savannas: The importance of intercultural governance
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  • [hal-01907234] From fire suppression to fire management: Advances and resistances to changes in fire policy in the savannas of Brazil and Venezuela
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  • [halshs-02870872] Fire management in Veredas (Palm swamps): new perspectives on traditional farming systems in Jalapão (Brazil)
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  • [hal-01907231] Fire management in Veredas (Palm swamps): new perspectives on traditional farming systems in Jalapão (Brazil)
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  • [hal-01191894] On the margins of soy farms : traditional populations and selective environmental policies in the Brazilian Cerrado
    In the Cerrado, the expansion of soybean cultivation since the 1990s has coincided with the strengthening of environmental regulations. We analyze how the two main environmental policies – Protected Areas and the Forest Code – have played out at the ground level in western Bahia state. These policies in Cerrado have not been designed to curb the expansion of this agricultural frontier. These norms have, on the contrary, accommodated this expansion because the way environmental managers selectively choose environmental problems and publicize them through specific information systems depreciates traditional fire-dependent production systems. These ‘politics of selection’ are likely to increase competition for resources in the margins of soybean agriculture, which is where traditional populations have now become confined.
  • [halshs-02870876] A Ascensão do Pagamento por Serviços Ambientais no Brasil: Negociando uma Governança Policêntrica.
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  • [halshs-02870886] Régularisation foncière et mobilités rurales-urbaines en Amazonie brésilienne. Quels effets sur les dynamiques résidentielles et démographiques des populations forestières?
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  • [halshs-02872823] O gado que circulava: desafios da gestão participativa de Unidades de Conservação nos gerais de norte de Minas Gerais
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  • [hal-01191901] Amerindian Agriculture in an Urbanising Amazonia (Rio Negro, Brazil)
    This article explores the transformations undergone by indigenous agricultural systems in periurban areas of the Rio Negro (Amazonas, Brazil). Rather than losing their characteristics, these systems have basically been transposed from a forest context to periurban areas, maintaining multi-plot cultivation, dynamic management of agrobiodiversity and traditional knowledge. But this agriculture is confronted by the values of modernity embedded in urban agriculture. The recognition of the ecological and cultural relevance of indigenous practices depends on new kinds of market integration and partnerships. Since the 1980s, the population of the three main towns in the Upper and Mid Rio Negro, in northwestern Brazilian Amazonia, has steadily increased and is now on the point of exceeding the rural population. In this region, located 400 km upstream from Manaus, population density is low (under one inhabitant per square kilometre). The phenomenon concerns all of Brazilian Amazonia. In 2000, 68 percent of the Amazonian population lived in urban areas; today this figure has increased to nearly 75 percent and continues to rise rapidly. At present, nineteen cities have populations of over 100,000 inhabitants each. Manaus and Belém , each with about 2 million people, have the largest concentrations of the urban population. However, towns have been emerging and growing along the agricultural frontier since the 1970s (Browder and Godfrey, 1997), and, more recently, urban growth has also become significant in remote areas such as the Rio Negro, in Amazonas State (Eloy, Le Tourneau and Théry , 2005). Whether along rivers or along roads, population growth takes place mainly in urban centres. Population movements between towns and forests are often temporary or circular , depending upon school calendars and those of productive activities (agriculture,
  • [hal-01191898] New Perspectives on Mobility, Urbanisation and Resource Management in Riverine Amazônia
    In recent years, the Amazon has experienced simultaneous processes of urbanisation and creation of protected areas. Debates over the changing role of traditional peoples in the management of such areas have largely taken place in the absence of reliable information on these popula-tions' connections to urban areas. We review the literature on Amazônia to explore how rural–urban mobility redefines patterns of resource use. The focus is primarily on riverine areas of the Brazilian Amazon. Connection to urban areas does not necessarily imply deep changes in production techniques, but induces new norms, rules and values around access to and management of resources. Rural–urban mobility challenges the capacity of local groups to maintain collective resource management, but on the other hand involves the reassertion of traditional territories and identities through social and economic networks. Mobility and migration have long been integral to the livelihood patterns and political strategies of rural and indigenous populations in Latin America (Adams et al., 2009; Alexiades, 2009). Recently, however, the magnitude of social dispersion and changes in settlement patterns associated with rapid urbanisation have renewed research interest in the implications of these processes for resource use and management in general (Wright and Muller-Landau, 2006), and within the Amazon basin in particular (McSweeney and Jokisch, 2007; Padoch et al., 2008). Urbanisation in Amazônia has been better studied on agricultural frontiers (Browder and Godfrey, 1997; Barbieri et al., 2009) than along the floodplains and the Amazon's main tributaries. However, these areas are increasingly important for resource conservation in the region (Parry et al., 2010a). Indeed, as
  • [halshs-02872460] Implementando Pagamentos por Serviços Ambientais no Brasil: caminhos para uma reflexão críticas
    O texto analisa a evolução das políticas e programas de Pagamentos por Serviços Ambientais (PSA) no Brasil e discute as implicações dos modelos preponderantes para a conciliação entre conservação e desenvolvimento. Os PSA emergiram de iniciativas de diversificação produtiva e de transição agroecológica. Entretanto, sua institucionalização em politicas públicas favorece a convergência para medidas de restrição de uso da terra e de restauração florestal. Essa mudança está ligada a: 1) a ênfase dada pelo governo às medidas de controle do desmatamento, 2) as expectativas de financiamentos por REDD e 3) as perspectivas de inclusão dos PSA no Código Florestal. Ela é reforçada pelo uso preponderante de satélites para o monitoramento dos projetos, o que produz um sistema binário de representação da paisagem. Isso justifica modelos convencionais de intensificação da agricultura e de proteção da natureza que não levam em conta atividades agropecuárias provedoras de serviços ambientais. Assim, o ingresso dos agricultores nos programas de PSA depende, mais do que nunca, do seu acesso às redes e cientifico-técnicas que estruturam os arranjos institucionais locais.
  • [hal-01088473] La construction de territoires multisitués en Amazonie
    Nous explorons les logiques des territoires multisitués de communautés quilombolas (descendants d’esclaves marrons) d’Amazonie. Leurs systèmes de mobilités articulent des espaces discontinus, à la fois ruraux et urbains, grâce à la dispersion des résidences familiales et à la complémentarité entre profils de mobilité. Un ensemble de règles collectives d’appartenance et d’accès aux ressources assure la continuité entre ces espaces et donne sens à la notion de territoire multisitué. Nous discutons ensuite les défis associés à la reconfiguration récente de ces territoires, compte tenu de l’évolution des systèmes de production et des injonctions liées à la gestion environnementale.
  • [halshs-02872470] La construction de territoires multisitués en Amazonie
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  • [hal-01191902] Can Rural–Urban Household Mobility Indicate Differences in Resource Management within Amazonian Communities?
    This article aims to understand the relationships between rural–urban mobility and economic differentiation in Amazonian communities, through a multi-scaled methodological framework. We focus on Amazonian quilombola communities (Par a State, Brazil), and we use a rural–urban circulation index to untangle the concept of mobility system. We show that individual mobility patterns are embedded in a process of multilocalisation, articulating rural and urban areas at a collective level. Economic diversification relies on complementarity of circulation within households. In this sense, the ability of some families to maintain resource rights in different places is one of the premises for economic differentiation. Since the 1980s, many traditional communities have been granted land rights in the Amazon basin. In several Amazonian countries, innovative legal statuses have given political visibility and land tenure security to indigenous and traditional peoples, based on the recognition of a special relationship between these communities and nature, usually embedded in spatial status and social boundedness (Alexiades, 2009; Newing, 2009). Brazil has gone further since 2006 with Decree n • 5.758, which considers
  • [halshs-02872474] Seed exchange networks for agrobiodiversity conservation. A review
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  • [halshs-02872760] O papel da cidade da agricultura familiar do semiárido: o exemplo do submédio São Francisco
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  • [hal-00477754] Urbanisation and transformation of indigenous resource management: the case of Upper Rio Negro (Brazil)
    Indigenous resource management is transforming in the face of urbanisation in Amazonia. We wonder how land tenure arrangements feature a new kind of resource management in peri-urban areas. Data were obtained from ethnographic and agro-economic interviews combined with a geographic information system analysis of population and land tenure distribution nearby São Gabriel da Cachoeira, Northwest Amazonia. The territories of each indigenous village are composed by many kinds of land use rights, ranging from exclusive ownership to common property. In the peri-urban area, private property has become the main land use right. But most of indigenous families resort to a multi-sited land use in rural-urban areas. The multi-sited pattern is associated with diversification of land use rights in the same households and extended families. These innovations reveal the adaptation of indigenous resource management.
  • [hal-00771301] Payments for ecosystem services in Amazonia. The challenge of land use heterogeneity in agricultural frontiers near Cruzeiro do Sul (Acre, Brazil)
    Amazonia became a target area for Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES) initiatives in deforestation. We analysed the implementation of a PES scheme in Acre (Brazil) by taking into account land use heterogeneity in an agricultural frontier. Justified by the modernisation of deforestation control policies, the programme promotes agricultural intensification through fire-free practices. In this way, the PES tends to focus on long-established settlements, where farmers are wealthier and the landscape is dominated by pasture. Agricultural intensification may be adapted to foster reforestation. In order to curb deforestation a specific policy is needed for targeting remote areas where initial stages of deforestation usually take place. By promoting only land sparing, PES programmes in Amazonia may lose sight of their socio-economic and environmental objectives due to limited spatial targeting.
  • [halshs-02872479] D’une production localisée à une Indication Géographique. La farinha de Cruzeiro do Sul (Amazonie brésilienne)
    La valorisation de productions localisées via les indications géographiques est relativement récente au Brésil. La « farine de manioc » de Cruzeiro do Sul (Acre) fait partie des produits susceptibles de recevoir ce signe de qualité. La question de l'intérêt d'une indication géographique (IG) pour assurer la pérennité tant écologique que culturelle de cette production amazonienne est ici posée. Celle-ci peut être considérée comme un produit hybride, résultant d'un savoir-faire nordestin et de variétés d'Amazonie occidentale. Du fait de ses qualités organoleptiques, elle jouit d'une réputation nationale ; toutefois, son développement commercial est à l'origine d'une extension des surfaces cultivées prises sur la forêt. Les politiques publiques n'intègrent pas encore les dimensions environnementales et culturelles de cette production et centrent leurs actions sur les normes sanitaires, la standardisation du produit et la visibilité de son emballage. Cette étude met en évidence les difficultés de l'application du système d'indications géographiques dans un contexte social et écologique hétérogène.
  • [halshs-02872476] Urbanisation and transformation of indigenous resource management: the case of Upper Rio Negro (Brazil)
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  • [halshs-00590912] La circulation de l'agrobiodiversité sur les fronts pionniers d'Amazonie (région de Cruzeiro do Sul, état de l'Acre, Brésil)
    En Amazonie, le développement des mobilités urbainrural soulève la question des liens entre territorialités et gestion des ressources. Avec l'exemple de la région de Cruzeiro do Sul (Acre, Brésil), nous montrons que les échanges de plantes cultivées entre les agriculteurs constituent un vecteur de l'appropriation de l'espace, de l'entretien de la mémoire familiale et de la continuité géographique entre les lieux de vie. Les réseaux d'échanges reflètent des dynamiques de fixation collective et de mobilité individuelle sur le front pionnier. Ils témoignent de la gestion collective de ressources biologiques dans des espaces marqués par l'appropriation privée des moyens de production.
  • [hal-00533363] Urbanização e transformação dos sistemas indígenas de manejo de recursos naturais : o caso do alto rio Negro (Brasil)
    O objetivo do artigo é analisar as transformações observadas nos sistemas indígenas de manejo dos recursos naturais no Alto Rio Negro, Noroeste Amazônico, devido à urbanização intensa e acelerada de algumas localidades e aos processos migratórios ocorridos nas últimas décadas. Nossos dados foram obtidos por meio de pesquisas etnográficas e agroeconômicas, associadas ao Sistema de Informação Geográficas para análise de população, direitos fundiários e paisagens na área periurbana de São Gabriel da Cachoeira, a principal cidade da região. As comunidades indígenas utilizam um território tradicional, onde se articulam diversos tipos de direitos fundiários sobre os recursos naturais, desde o uso individual exclusivo até a propriedade comum. Na região periurbana, a propriedade privada da terra se tornou dominante. No entanto, por causa da escassez crescente dos recursos naturais ao redor da cidade, a famílias migrantes negociam seus direitos fundiários no âmbito de uma rede social extensa, criando assim uma estratégia multilocal. Esta pode ser entendida como manifestação da adaptabilidade dos sistemas tradicionais de manejo dos recursos naturais.
  • [hal-00533371] Dynamiques et enjeux des agricultures familiales au Brésil
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  • [hal-00533353] Questions foncières et politiques de réforme agraire au Brésil
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  • [hal-00533233] L'indication géographique, un instrument de pérennisation des productions localisées en Amazonie ? Le cas de la farine de manioc de Cruzeiro do Sul (Acre, Brésil)
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  • [hal-00477756] L'urbanisation provoque-t-elle la déforestation en Amazonie ? Innovations territoriales et agricoles dans le nord-ouest Amazonien (Brésil).
    Les processus d'urbanisation en oeuvre dans les forêts tropicales sont souvent incompatibles avec le maintien d'agroécosytèmes forestiers diversifiés. Dans les régions situées à l'écart des fronts pionniers, le développement des petites villes remet en question la durabilité des espaces protégés et des agricultures amérindiennes. Ce travail analyse les recompositions territoriales et agricoles liées à l'urbanisation autour de São Gabriel da Cachoeira (Amazonie brésilienne). La ville a connu une croissance rapide durant les vingt dernières années, essentiellement en raison de l'installation de familles provenant des Terres Indigènes du haut Rio Negro. La périphérie de la ville est maintenant dominée par la propriété privée. Malgré cela, la région périurbaine demeure largement couverte de formations forestières denses. Au lieu de passer à des systèmes de culture permanents, la plupart des familles amérindiennes maintiennent l'agriculture sur abattis-brûlis, utilisant la ville comme source de diversification économique. Leurs mobilités circulaires articulent différents lieux de résidence et de production, afin de pallier la rareté croissante des ressources naturelles. Ces innovations territoriales offrent des alternatives pour la durabilité des agricultures d'abattis-brûlis en contexte d'urbanisation.
  • [halshs-02872771] Géographie et anthropologie. Deux regards complémentaires pour l’étude des territoires des populations traditionnelles d’Amazonie brésilienne
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  • [hal-00477750] Resiliência dos sistemas indígenas de agricultura itinerante em contexto de urbanização no noroeste da Amazônia brasileira
    Este artigo identifica as bases agroeconômicas e as praticas territoriais que explicam a resiliência dos sistemas indígenas de agricultura itinerante em função das transformações ocorridas com a rápida urbanização da Amazônia, sobretudo com as mudanças das regras locais de apropriação dos recursos naturais. Utilizando o exemplo da zona periurbana de uma pequena cidade da Amazônia ocidental (Brasil), analisamos a diferenciação espaço-temporal dos três principais sistemas de cultivo após corte e queima, e comparamos seus resultados agroeconômicos. Os dados foram obtidos a partir da análise espacial das dinâmicas de paisagem e de um conjunto de entrevistas entrevistas com famílias de agricultores selecionadas através de uma dupla amostragem. Os resultados mostraram que os três modos de cultivo são complementares no espaço produtivo famíliar e durante o processo de produção. A expansão da surperficie das agroflorestas se deve a uma especialização para o mercado urbano, mas remete sobretudo a uma estratégia de capitalização fundiária. As unidades de produção multilocais se dividem entre os espaços urbanos e florestais, o que permite aliviar a concorrência para o acesso aos recursos naturais. As mobilidades circulares em rede propiciam manter a complementariedade entre os sistemas de cultivo, e assim contribuem para a sustentabilidade do agroecosistema perirubano. A resiliência dos sistemas indígenas de manejo dos recursos florestais em contexto de urbanização sugere novas alternativas para o desenvolvimento agrícola e para a conservação da biodiversidade na Amazônia.

 

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